What is Garcinia Cambogia?
Garcinia Cambog,ia is one of several closely related Garcinia species from the plant family known as Guttiferie . With a thin skin and deep vertical lobes, the fruit of Garcinia Cambogia is about the size oil an orange, but looks more like a small yellowish or reddish pumpkin. When the rinds are dried and cured in preparation for storage and extraction, they are dark brown in colour. Another member of the family, Garcinia Mangostana, is cultivated specifically for its fruit and is not a source of HCA. These Garcinia species are native to Southeast Asia and are usually wil’d-crafted, although they are cultivated in some areas.
Along the West coast of Southern India, Garcinia Cambogia is known as “Goroka” or “Kattcha puli” (soujing fruit) . It is employed commercially in fish curing, especially in Sri Lanka (Colombo curing) and various species of Garcinia are used in food preparation in Thailand, Malaysia and Burma. Garcinia Cambogia is considered to 6e effective in making meals “more filling” : Aside from its use in food preparation and preservation, extracts of Garcinia Cambogia are sometimes used as purgatives in the treatment of intestinal worms and other parasites, for tumours, for dysentery and in the treatment of bilious digestive conditions.
“G cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation in subjects, regardless of sex, who had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. No rebound effect was observed. It is therefore expected that G cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of accumulation of visceral fat.”
“Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA.”
“Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels.”
In one randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 89 mildly overweight women (weighing 10–50 lb more than ideal body weight) received Garcinia cambogia (800 mg, 30–60 minutes before meals for a total daily dose of 2.4 g/day [1.2 g HCA]) or placebo and followed a 1,200 kcal diet for 12 weeks . Women receiving Garcinia cambogia lost significantly more weight (3.7 kg) than those receiving placebo (2.4 kg). However, Garcinia cambogia did not alter appetite, and the study produced no evidence that the supplement affected feelings of satiety. In another double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 135 overweight men and women (BMI 27–38) received either Garcinia cambogia (1,000 mg, 30 minutes before each meal for a total daily dose of 3,000 mg/day [1,500 mg HCA]) or placebo and followed a high-fiber, low-energy diet for 12 weeks . Participants in both groups lost weight, but the between-group weight-loss differences were not statistically significant. HCA also had no effect on body fat loss.
A 2011 review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized, controlled trials with a total of 706 participants examined the effects of HCA on weight loss . The findings from 9 of the trials (those that had data suitable for statistical pooling) indicate that when taken for 2–12 weeks, HCA reduces body weight in the short term by a mean of 0.88 kg compared to placebo. However, the authors noted that when they considered only rigorously designed trials, the effect was no longer statistically significant. Therefore, the effect of HCA on body weight remains uncertain. The authors of a 2013 review of Garcinia cambogia/HCA reached similar conclusions, noting that whether Garcinia cambogia/HCA is effective for obesity “remains to be proven in larger-scale and longer-term clinical trials”.
The reported adverse effects of Garcinia cambogia and HCA are generally mild and include headache, nausea, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms [93,95,97]. Cases of liver toxicity have been reported in people taking products containing Garcinia cambogia, other botanical ingredients, and minerals . However, it is unclear whether this toxicity can be attributed to Garcinia cambogia. Because all clinical trials of Garcinia cambogia and HCA have been short, its long-term safety is unknown.
Garcinia gummi-gutta is a tropical species of Garcinia native to Indonesia. Common names include Garcinia cambogia (a former scientific name), as well as brindleberry, Malabar tamarind, and kudam puli (pot tamarind). This fruit looks like a small pumpkin and is green to pale yellow in color.
Although it has received considerable media attention purporting its effects on weight loss, there is liver toxicity associated with commercial preparations of the fruit extract with clinical evidence indicating it has no significant effect on weight loss.